Narrated by: Stephen Bel Davies Length: 11 hrs and 44 mins Unabridged 5 out of 5 stars 78 Performance 5 out of 5 stars 73 Story 5 out of 5 stars 73 In this extraordinarily documented, meticulously researched work, Zecharia Sitchin draws remarkable correlations between the events that shape our civilization in millennia past - pinpointing with astonishing accuracy the tumultuous beginning of time as we know it In The End of Days, a masterwork that required 30 years of additional research, Sitchin presents compelling new evidence that the past is the future - that mankind and its planet Earth are subject to a predetermined cyclical celestial time. Parting the mists of time and myth, the internationally renowned scholar Zecharia Sitchin takes us back in this volume to the violent beginnings of the human story, when gods - not men - ruled the Earth. In a spellbinding reconstruction of epic events preserved in legends and ancient writings, he traces the conflicts that began on another world, continued on Earth, and culminated in the use of nuclear weapons.
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If not the most enigmatic, it certainly is the most puzzling, and for sure one rooted in great antiquity. It is a structure that has no parallel among the remains of the great civilizations that had flourished in the Near East in past millennia—at least so far as has been uncovered. Its closest parallels are thousands of miles away, across the seas and on other continents; and what it mostly brings to mind is Stonehenge in faraway Britain.
There, on a windswept plain in England about eighty miles southwest of London, circles of imposing megaliths form the most important prehistoric monument in the whole of Britain. There, a semicircle of huge upright stones that have been connected at their tops by lintel stones encompasses within it a semicircle of smaller stone uprights, and is surrounded in turn by two circles of other megaliths.
The multitudes that visit the site find that only some of the megaliths still remain standing, while others have collapsed to the ground or are somehow gone from the site. But scholars and researchers have been able to figure out the configuration of the circleswithin-circles Fig. The horseshoe semicircles, and a fallen large megalith nicknamed the Slaughter Stone, indicate beyond doubt that the structure was oriented on a northeast-southwest axis.
All the studies conclude that the alignments served astronomical purposes; they were first oriented circa B. One of the shortest yet most fierce and ferocious recent wars in the Middle East was the Six Day War of , when the hemmed-in and besieged Israeli army defeated the armies of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria and captured the Sinai peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan River, and the Golan Heights. Star Stones 3 Figure 2 In the years that followed Israeli archaeologists conducted extensive archaeological surveys and excavations in all those areas, bringing to light settlements from early Neolithic times through biblical times to Greek, Roman, and Byzantine periods.
Yet nowhere was the surprise greater than on the sparsely inhabited and mostly empty plateau called the Golan Heights. Not only was it discovered that it had been an actively inhabited and cultivated area in the earliest times of human habitation; not only were remains of settlements found from the several millennia preceding die Common Era. The walls of the three main stone circles rise to eight feet or more, and their width exceeds ten feet. They are constructed of field stones, ranging in size from small to megalithic ones that weigh five tons and even more.
In several places the circular concentric walls are connected to each other by radial walls, narrower than but about the same height as the circular walls. In the precise center of the complex structure there rises a huge yet well-defined pile of stones, measuring some sixtyfive feet across. Apart from its unique shape, this is by far one of the largest single stone structures in western Asia, so large in Star Stones 5 Figure 4 fact that it can be seen from space by Earth-orbiting spacecraft.
Engineers who have studied the site estimated that, even in its present condition, it contains more man , cubic feet of stones weighing an aggregate of close to 45, tons. All of which raises the questions, by whom was this structure built, when, and for what?
The outermost circle clearly showed that it contained two breaks or openings, one located in the northeast and the other in the southeast—locations that indicate an orientation toward the summer and winter solstices. It was in the walls of this entryway that the largest basalt boulders, weighing as much as five and a half tons each, were found. The southeastern break in the outer ring also provided access to the inner parts of the structure, but there the entranceway did not possess the monumental building; but piles of fallen stones starting in this entranceway and leading outward from it suggest the outlines of a stone-flanked avenue extending in the southeastern direction—an avenue that might have outlined an astronomical line of sight.
These indications that the place was indeed, as Stonehenge in Britain, built to serve as an astronomical observatory and primarily to determine the solstices is reinforced by the existence of such observatories elsewhere—structures that are Star Stones 7 Figures 6a and 6b even more similar to the one on the Golan, for they feature not only the concentric circles, but also the radial walls connecting the circles. What is amazing is that those similar structures are at ancient sites all the way on the other side of the world, in the Americas.
Another is the circular observatory atop the promontory of Sacsahuaman in Peru Fig. Such similarities were reason enough for the Israeli scientists to call in Dr. Anthony Aveni of the USA, an internationally acclaimed authority on ancient astronomies, especially those of the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas. His task was not only to confirm the astronomical orientations underlying the design of the Golan site, but also to help determine its age—and thus, in addition to the For What question, also answer the question When.
That the orientation of a structure—if aligned to the solstices—can reveal the time of its construction, has been an accepted tool in archaeoastronomy since the publication of The Dawn of Astronomy by Sir Norman Lockyer in In this celestial dance— though it is the Earth that moves and not the Sun—it appears to observers on Earth that the Sun, moving back and forth, reaches some distant point, hesitates, stops, and then as if it changed its mind, starts back; crosses the equator, goes all the way to the other extreme, hesitates, and stops there, and goes back.
Studying ancient temples, Lockyer divided them into two classes. Some, as the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem and the temple to Zeus at a place called Baalbek in Lebanon, Star Stones 9 were built along an east-west axis that oriented them to sunrise on the days of the equinoxes. Others, as pharaonic temples in Egypt, were aligned on an axis inclined southwest-northeast, which meant that they were oriented to the solstices.
Such realignments were also made at Stonehenge. What had caused those directional changes? If this angle of inclination were to remain unchanged forever, the solstice points would also remain the same. Right now, as in the preceding several millennia, the tilt has been in a narrowing phase. It was over 24 degrees circa B.
Aveni and his Israeli colleagues, Yonathan Mizrachi and Mattanyah Zohar, were thus able to determine that the site was so oriented as to enable an observer standing in its center and following a Star Stones 11 sight line through the center of the northeastern gateway, to see the Sun rise there on solstice day on a June dawn at about B.
By B. Five hundred years later, the structure had lost its value as a precise astronomical observatory. It was, then, sometime between and B.
Uncannily, these phased dates are virtually identical to the dates assigned to the three phases of Stonehenge. Because it was protected by the mound of stones above it, the cavity under the cairn—the presumed burial chamber—remained the most intact part of the ancient site. It was located with the aid of sophisticated seismic instruments and groundpenetrating radar.
Once a large cavity had been indicated, the excavators led by Dr. Yonathan Mizrachi dug a trench that led them into a circular chamber of over six feet in diameter and about five feet high. It led to a larger chamber, oval in shape, about eleven feet long and about four feet wide. There was no coffin and no body, nor any other human or animal remains in either the chamber or antechamber. But the archaeologists did find, as a result of meticulous sifting of the soil, a few gold earrings, several beads made of carnelian semiprecious stone, flint blades, bronze arrowheads, and ceramic shards.
They therefore concluded that indeed it was a burial chamber, but one that had been looted, probably in antiquity. That was the time frame of the Exodus of the Children of Israel from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, and the conquest of the Promised Land under the leadership of Joshua.
Of the twelve tribes, the tribes of Reuben and Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh were allotted parts of Transjordan, from the River Anion in the south to the foothills of Mount Hermon in the north. Those domains included the mountain range of Gilad east of the Jordan River and the plateau that is now the Golan. It was therefore perhaps unavoidable that Israeli researchers turned to the Bible for an answer to the question: Who?
According to the books of Numbers and Joshua, the northern part of the Gilead mountains was ruled by a king called Og from his capital of Bashan. Winning the battle, the Israelites captured sixty towns that were "fortified with high walls and gates and barriers, apart from a great number of unwalled towns.
Og, according to the Bible, was a big and stout man: "His iron bedstead is nine cubits long and four cubits wide" equivalent to over thirteen feet and six feet, respectively. The texts, which clearly place the divine and semidivine actions and events in the area we are dealing with here, were written on clay tablets discovered in the s at a coastal site in northern Syria whose ancient name was Ugarit.
Several of the discovered texts deal with such involvement on the part of the trio. Instead, he falls ill; and his sons wonder aloud: "How could an offspring of El, the Merciful One, die? Shall a divine one die? The sacred circuit, the mighty circuit, the circuit of broad span, [for thee] shall lament. There is here, then, a reference to two highly venerated places that shall mourn the death of the demigod: Mount Zaphon.
Granting appeals for mercy, El at the last moment sent the goddess Shataqat, "a female who removes the illness. But being only a demigod, Keret in the end did die. Was he then the one buried in the tomb within "the sacred circuit, the mighty circuit, the circuit of broad span"? Whether or not any of those legendary rulers ended up being buried at the Golan site, we may never know for sure; especially since the archaeologists studying the site raised the possibility of intrusive burials—namely, the entombment of a later-deceased in a burial place from earlier times, involving as often as not the removal of the earlier remains.
They are, however, certain based on structural features and various dating techniques that the construction of the "henge"—concentric walls of what we might dub Star Stones because of the Star Stones 15 astronomical function—preceded, by 1, to 1, years, the addition of the cairn and its burial chambers.
As at Stonehenge and other megalithic sites, so too regarding the Golan site, the enigma of who built them is only intensified by establishing their age and determining that an advanced knowledge of astronomy underlay their orientations. Unless they were indeed the divine beings themselves, who was there capable of the feat—circa B.
In B. It blossomed out in what is nowadays southern Iraq, "suddenly, unexpectedly, out of nowhere" in the words of all scholars. And wi t h i n a few centuries—an instant as human evolution goes—accounted for virtually all the firsts of what we deem essential to a high civilization, from the wheel to the kiln and bricks and high-rise buildings, writing and poetry and music, codes of law and courts, judges and contracts, temples and priests, kings and administrators, schools and teachers, doctors and nurses; and amazing knowledge of mathematics, exact sciences, and astronomy.
Their calendar, still in use as the Jewish calendar, was inaugurated in a city called Nippur in B. It was a civilization mat preceded mat of Egypt by some eight hundred years and by a thousand years that of the Indus Valley.
They all bore the imprint and borrowed the underlying firsts of the Sumerians; so did the civilizations mat in time rose in Greece and the Mediterranean islands.
Did the Sumerians venture as far as me Golan Heights? When Ur was their capital, its merchants were familiar in all parts of the ancient Near East. The time was circa B. Aiming to be a mighty king and aggrandize his city, Gilgamesh started his reign by challenging the authority of the then-principal city of Sumer, Kish. A clay tablet describing the episode names the king of Kish Agga, and twice describes him as being "stout.
Proud, ambitious, and swashbuckling in his youth, Gilgamesh took hard his creeping aging. To sustain his prowess he took to dropping in on newlyweds in his city, claiming the royal right to be the first to have sex with the bride. When the townspeople could not stand it anymore, they appealed to the gods for help; and the gods responded by creating a double for Gilgamesh.
Gilgamesh grew gloomy and reflective. He witnessed people his age or even younger dying; and then it occurred to him that there is another way: he was. Should he. Gilgamesh, then die as a mortal, or be entitled to the everlasting life of the gods?
He presented his case to his mother. Yes, she told him, you are right. And the places from which such ascents are possible, she told him, are under the command of his godfather Utu later known as Shamash.
Only the gods live forever under the Sun. As for Mankind, numbered are their days. The story of Gilgamesh and his quest for immortality is told in the Epic of Gilgamesh, a long text written on clay tablets and discovered by archaeologists in both the original Sumerian and various ancient translations.
As the tale unfolds, we read that Gilgamesh was not dissuaded, and an object that fell from the skies was deemed by him a sign from heaven that he should not give up. It would be a journey fraught with dangers, she warned Gilgamesh. But what is the alternative?
BOOK 6: The Cosmic Code
The Cosmic Code