Dojin World book encyclopaedia for second sale. One tradition claims gnaba he was a Paraiyar weaver. Tarlochan Singh Bedi Sanskrit: The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. Literary Interventions by Tamil Dalits. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st century CE. Thiruvalluvar — Wikipedia Papers on Tamil studies.
|Published (Last):||18 August 2004|
|PDF File Size:||2.21 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.64 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Monsieur Ariel , a French translator of his work in the 19th century, famously said it is "the book without a name by an author without a name". Saint Valluvar was first mentioned in the later text Tiruvalluva Maalai.
According to Zvelebil, Thiruvalluvar was "probably a learned Jain with eclectic leanings and intimate acquaintance with the early works of Tamil classical period and some knowledge of the Sanskrit legal and didactic texts subhashita ". The commentary includes the gloss that Valluvan was "born in a low caste", but the original text does not.
According to Stuart Blackburn, this comment appears to be extra-textual and possibly based on the oral tradition. No other pre-colonial textual sources have been found to support any legends about the life of Thiruvalluvar.
Starting around early 19th-century, numerous legends on Thiruvalluvar in Indian languages and English were published. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". It states that they were children of a Pulaya mother named Adi and a Brahmin father named Bhagwan. Along with various versions of his birth circumstances, many state he went to a mountain and met the legendary Agastya and other sages.
The alleged low birth, high birth and being a pariah in the traditional accounts are also doubtful. According to traditional accounts, it was the last work of the third Sangam and was subjected to a divine test which it passed. Rajamanickam, date the text to as early as BCE. Historian K. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st-century CE. Vaiyapuri Pillai assigned the work to around or after the 6th-century CE. Zvelebil states that an additional few have uncertain etymology and future studies may prove those to be Dravidian.
In the s, Zvelebil dated the text to somewhere between and CE. The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. As suggested by Maraimalai Adigal , the Valluvar Year was added to the calendar.
Valluvar is believed to have lived in Madurai and later in the town of Mayilapuram or Thirumayilai present-day Mylapore in Chennai. Their claim was based on an old Kani tribal leader who told them that Valluvar was a king who ruled the "Valluvanadu" territory in the hilly tracts of the Kanyakumari district.
These claims have been proven to be false. The Tamil Scholar Mu. Varadarajan suggests Valluvar must have "practised religious eclecticism, maintained unshakeable faith in dharma but should have rejected religious symbols and superstitious beliefs. The translation by Ellis mentions that the Tamil community debates whether Thiruvalluvar was a Jain or Hindu. Zvelebil states that the text contains epithets for God that reflect Jain ideology:  Malarmicaiyekinan Couplet 3 , "he who walked upon the [lotus] flower" Aravaliyantanan Couplet 8 , "the Brahmin [who had] the wheel of dharma" Enkunattan Couplet 9 , "one of the eight-fold qualities" These, according to Zvelebil, are "very much Jaina-like" because the arhat is seen as "standing on the lotus",  or where the arhat in the Jain conception is the god with the lotus as his vehicle.
The first claim of Thiruvalluvar as an authority appears in a 16th-century Jain text, about 1, years after his life. The text, however, does cover turavaram renunciation — the means to attain spiritual release. Thus, vitu is indirectly discussed. It is a practical, pragmatic text and "certainly not a Shaivite or Vaishnavite" text. It contains couplets, which are divided into sections of 10 couplets each. The first 38 sections are on moral and cosmic order Tamil: aram , Skt: dharma , the next 70 are about political and economic matters Tamil: porul , Skt: artha , and the remaining 25 are about pleasure Tamil: inbam , Skt: kama.
Thiruvalluvar presents his theory of state using six elements: army patai , subjects kuti , treasure kul , ministers amaiccu , allies natpu , and forts aran. Tirukkural is generally recognized as the only work by Valluvar. However, in the Tamil literary tradition, Valluvar is attributed to be the author of many other later-dated texts including two Tamil texts on medicine, Gnana Vettiyan verses and Pancharathnam verses. Many scholars state that these are much later era texts 16th and 17th centuries , possibly by an author with the same name Valluvar.
In , the German missionary, Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg, remarked that the Malabaris "think very highly of it", they make it "their handbook" often quoting from it to prove the validity of their traditions and arguments, and such books are "not just read but learned by heart" by the learned among them.
A Valluvar statue in a seated posture holding a palm leaf manuscript of Tirukurral sits under the tree. The temple shikhara spire above the sanctum shows scenes of Hindu life and deities, along with Valluvar reading his couplets to his wife. Carnatic musicians and composers like Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri and M M Dandapani Desigar tuned select couplets in th centuries. Chitravina N Ravikiran set music to the entire verses using over Indian ragas Jan
GNANA VETTIYAN BOOK PDF