BOND MARKETS ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES 8TH PDF

Present Value When Payments Occur More Than Once Per Year If the future value to be received occurs more than once per year, then the present value formula is modified so that i the annual interest rate is divided by the frequency per year, and ii the number of periods when the future value will be received is adjusted by multiplying the number of years by the frequency per year. The required yield reflects the yield for financial instruments with comparable risk. Pricing Zero-Coupon Bonds For zero-coupon bonds, the investor realizes interest as the difference between the maturity value and the purchase price. The equation is: P M n 1r where M is the maturity value.

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Chapters set forth the basic analytical framework necessary to understand the pricing of bonds and their investment characteristics. Chapter 6 introduces Treasury securities, Treasury derivative securities, and federal agency securities.

Chapters explain the investment characteristics and special features of U. Chapters focus on residential mortgage-backed securities. Chapter 14 covers commercial mortgage loans and commercial mortgage-backed securities. Chapter 15 covers asset-backed securities. Chapter 16 provides the basics of interest rate modeling.

Chapter 17 explains the lattice method for valuing bonds with embedded. Chapter 18 discusses the Monte Carlo simulation model for mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities backed by residential loans.

Chapter 19 covers the analysis of convertible bonds. Chapter 20 describes traditional credit analysis and Chapter 21 provides the basics of credit risk modeling. Chapters discuss portfolio management. Chapter 26 covers interest-rate futures contracts while Chapter 27 covers interest-rate options. Chapter 28 examines interest-rate swaps, caps, and floors while Chapter 29 looks at credit derivatives. A bond is a debt instrument requiring the issuer to repay to the lender the amount borrowed plus interest over a specified period of time.

The date on which the principal is required to be repaid is called the maturity date. Assuming that the issuer does not default or redeem the issue prior to the maturity date, an investor holding this bond until the maturity date is assured of a known cash flow pattern. Treasury sector, agency sector, municipal sector, corporate sector, asset-backed securities, and mortgage sector.

These securities include Treasury bills, notes, and bonds. This sector plays a key role in the valuation of securities and the determination of interest rates throughout the world. The Agency Sector The agency sector includes securities issued by federally related institutions and government-sponsored enterprises. The securities issued are not backed by any collateral and are referred to as agency debenture securities.

The Municipal Sector The municipal sector is where state and local governments and their authorities raise funds. This sector is divided into two subsectors based on how the interest received by investors is taxed at the federal income tax level: the tax-exempt and taxable sectors.

The municipal bond market includes two types of structures: tax-backed and revenue bonds. The Corporate Sector The corporate sector includes i securities issued by U. Issuers in the corporate sector issue bonds, medium-term notes, structured notes, and commercial paper.

The corporate sector is divided into the investment grade and noninvestment grade sectors. The Asset-Backed Securities Sector In the asset-backed securities sector, a corporate issuer pools loans or receivables and uses the pool of assets as collateral for the issuance of a security.

The Mortgage Sector The mortgage sector is the sector where securities are backed by mortgage loans. These are loans obtained by borrowers in order to purchase residential property or an entity to purchase commercial property i. The mortgage sector is then divided into the residential mortgage sector and the commercial mortgage sector. Type of Issuer There are three issuers of bonds: the federal government and its agencies, municipal governments, and corporations domestic and foreign. Term to Maturity The maturity of a bond refers to the date that the debt will cease to exist, at which time the issuer will redeem the bond by paying the principal.

Generally, bonds with a maturity of between one and five years are considered short-term. Bonds with a maturity between 5 and 12 years are viewed as intermediate -term, and those with a maturity of more than 12 years are called long-term. With all other factors constant, the longer the maturity of a bond, the greater the price volatility resulting from a change in market yields. Principal and Coupon Rate The principal of a bond is the amount that the issuer agrees to repay the bondholder at the maturity date.

This amount is also referred to as the redemption value, maturity value, par value, or face value. The coupon rate, also called the nominal rate, is the interest rate that the issuer agrees to pay each year.

The annual amount of the interest payment made to owners during the term of the bond is called the coupon. The holder of a zero-coupon bond realizes interest by buying the bond substantially below its principal value.

Interest is then paid at the maturity date, with the exact amount being the difference between the principal value and the price paid for the bond. Floating-rate bonds are issues where the coupon rate resets periodically the coupon reset date based on a formula.

The quoted margin is the additional amount that the issuer agrees to pay above the reference rate. An important non-interest rate index that has been used with increasing frequency is the rate of inflation. Bonds whose interest rate is tied to the rate of inflation are referred to generically as linkers. The coupon on floating-rate bonds which is dependent on an interest rate benchmark typically rises as the benchmark rises and falls as the benchmark falls.

Exceptions are inverse floaters whose coupon interest rate moves in the opposite direction from the change in interest rates. To reduce the burden of interest payments, firms involved in LBOs and recapitalizations, have issued deferred-coupon bonds that let the issuer avoid using cash to make interest payments for a specified number of years. Amortization Feature The principal repayment of a bond issue can call for either 1 the total principal to be repaid at maturity or 2 the principal repaid over the life of the bond.

In the latter case, there is a schedule of principal repayments. This schedule is called an amortization schedule. For amortizing securities, a measure called the weighted average life or simply average life of a security is computed. The most common type of option embedded in a bond is a call provision. This provision grants the issuer the right to retire the debt, fully or partially, before the scheduled maturity date.

An issue with a put provision included in the indenture grants the bondholder the right to sell the issue back to the issuer at par value on designated dates. A convertible bond is an issue giving the bondholder the right to exchange the bond for a specified number of shares of common stock. An exchangeable bond allows the bondholder to exchange the issue for a specified number of common stock shares of a corporation different from the issuer of the bond.

Describing a Bond Issue There are hundreds of thousands of bonds issues. The first six characters identify the issuer: the corporation, government agency, or municipality. The next two characters identify whether the issue is debt or equity and the issuer of the issue. The last character is simply a check character that allows for accuracy checking and is sometimes truncated or ignored. In later chapters, other risks, such as yield curve risk, event risk, and tax risk, are also introduced.

Interest-Rate Risk If an investor has to sell a bond prior to the maturity date, an increase in interest rates will mean the realization of a capital loss i. This risk is referred to as interest-rate risk or market risk. Reinvestment Income or Reinvestment Risk Reinvestment risk is the risk that the interest rate at which interim cash flows can be reinvested will fall. Reinvestment risk is greater for longer holding periods, as well as for bonds with large, early, cash flows, such as high-coupon bonds.

It should be noted that interest-rate risk and reinvestment risk have offsetting effects. In contrast, reinvestment risk is the risk that interest rates will fall. Call Risk Call risk is the risk investors have that a callable bond will be called when interest rates fall.

The issuer usually retains this right in order to have flexibility to refinance the bond in the future if the market interest rate drops below the coupon rate. For investors, there are three disadvantages to call provisions. First, the cash flow pattern cannot be known with certainty. Second, the investor is exposed to reinvestment risk. Third, the capital appreciation potential of a bond will be reduced. Even though the investor is usually compensated for taking call risk by means of a lower price or a higher yield, it is not easy to determine if this compensation is sufficient.

Credit Risk Credit risk is the risk that the issuer of a bond will fail to satisfy the terms of the obligation with respect to the timely payment of interest and repayment of the amount borrowed. This form of credit risk is called default risk. Market participants gauge the default risk of an issue by looking at the default rating or credit rating assigned to a bond issue by rating companies. The yield on a bond issue is made up of two components: 1 the yield on a similar maturity Treasury issue and 2 a premium to compensate for the risks associated with the bond issue that do not exist in a Treasury issue-referred to as a spread.

The part of the risk premium or spread attributable to default risk is called the credit spread. The risk that a bond price will decline due to an increase in the credit spread is called credit spread risk. This risk is referred to as downgrade risk. Consequently, credit risk consists of three types of risk: default risk, credit spread risk, and downgrade risk.

Inflation Risk Inflation risk or purchasing-power risk arises because of the variation in the value of cash flows from a security due to inflation, as measured in terms of purchasing power. Exchange-Rate Risk A non-dollar-denominated bond i. The dollar cash flows are dependent on the exchange rate at the time the payments are received. The risk of the exchange rate causing smaller cash flows is referred to as exchange rate or currency risk.

Liquidity Risk Liquidity or marketability risk depends on the ease with which an issue can be sold at or near its value. The primary measure of liquidity is the size of the spread between the bid price and the ask price quoted by a dealer. The wider the dealer spread, the more the liquidity risk. Marking a position to market, or simply marking to market, means that the portfolio manager must periodically determine the market value of each bond in the portfolio.

Volatility Risk The value of an embedded option rises when expected interest-rate volatility increases. The risk that a change in volatility will affect the price of a bond adversely is called volatility risk.

Risk Risk There have been new and innovative structures introduced into the bond market. Risk riskis defined as not knowing what the risk of a security is. There are two ways to mitigate or eliminate risk risk. The first way is to keep up with the literature on the state-of-the-art methodologies for analyzing securities.

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