The PSU was particularly active in the struggle for the decolonization of Algeria. He wrote his first novel, Almagestes, in To quote Badiou himself, the UCFml is "the Maoist organization established in late by Natacha Michel , Sylvain Lazarus , myself and a fair number of young people". This organization disbanded in , according to the French Wikipedia article linked to in the previous sentence.
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The PSU was particularly active in the struggle for the decolonization of Algeria. He wrote his first novel, Almagestes, in To quote Badiou himself, the UCFml is "the Maoist organization established in late by Natacha Michel , Sylvain Lazarus , myself and a fair number of young people". This organization disbanded in , according to the French Wikipedia article linked to in the previous sentence. Unusually for a contemporary European philosopher his work is increasingly being taken up by militants in countries like India, the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa.
I propose that nobody any longer accept, publicly or privately, this type of political blackmail. Everyone agrees, it seems, on the point that the Taliban do not embody the path of modernity for Afghanistan. But the fact that this state presents itself as a Jewish state is directly contradictory.
The solution is the creation of a secular and democratic Palestine Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message Badiou makes repeated use of several concepts throughout his philosophy. One of the aims of his thought is to show that his categories of truth are useful for any type of philosophical critique.
Therefore, he uses them to interrogate art and history as well as ontology and scientific discovery. When philosophy does suture itself to one of its conditions and Badiou argues that the history of philosophy during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is primarily a history of sutures , what results is a philosophical "disaster.
For Badiou, when philosophy addresses the four truth procedures in a genuinely philosophical manner, rather than through a suturing abandonment of philosophy as such, it speaks of them with a theoretical terminology that marks its philosophical character: "inaesthetics" rather than art; metapolitics rather than politics; ontology rather than science; etc. Truth , for Badiou, is a specifically philosophical category. The lover, for instance, does not think of her love as a question of truth, but simply and rightly as a question of love.
Badiou has a very rigorous notion of truth, one that is strongly against the grain of much of contemporary European thought. Badiou at once embraces the traditional modernist notion that truths are genuinely invariant always and everywhere the case, eternal and unchanging and the incisively postmodernist notion that truths are constructed through processes. Such a rupture is what Badiou calls an event, according to a theory originally worked out in Being and Event and fleshed out in important ways in Logics of Worlds.
The individual who chances to witness such an event, if he is faithful to what he has glimpsed, can then introduce the truth by naming it into worldly situations. For Badiou, it is by positioning oneself to the truth of an event that a human animal becomes a subject ; subjectivity is not an inherent human trait. While such knowledge is produced in the process of being faithful to a truth event, for Badiou, knowledge, in the figure of the encyclopedia, always remains fragile, subject to what may yet be produced as faithful subjects of the event produce further knowledge.
According to Badiou, truth procedures proceed to infinity, such that faith fidelity outstrips knowledge. Badiou, following both Lacan and Heidegger , distances truth from knowledge. The dominating ideology of the day, which Badiou terms "democratic materialism," denies the existence of truth and only recognizes " bodies " and " languages. Art is immanent in the sense that its truth is given in its immediacy in a given work of art, and singular in that its truth is found in art and art alone—hence reviving the ancient materialist concept of "aesthesis".
His view of the link between philosophy and art is tied into the motif of pedagogy, which he claims functions so as to "arrange the forms of knowledge in a way that some truth may come to pierce a hole in them". This situation of being and the rupture which characterizes the event are thought in terms of set theory , and specifically Zermelo—Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice , to which Badiou accords a fundamental role in a manner quite distinct from the majority of either mathematicians or philosophers.
Mathematics as ontology[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. December Learn how and when to remove this template message For Badiou the problem which the Greek tradition of philosophy has faced and never satisfactorily dealt with is that while beings themselves are plural, and thought in terms of multiplicity, being itself is thought to be singular; that is, it is thought in terms of the one. Set theory does not operate in terms of definite individual elements in groupings but only functions insofar as what belongs to a set is of the same relation as that set that is, another set too.
What individuates a set, therefore, is not an existential positive proposition, but other multiples whose properties i. The structure of being thus secures the regime of the count-as-one.
So if one is to think of a set — for instance, the set of people, or humanity — as counting as one, the multiple elements which belong to that set are secured as one consistent concept humanity , but only in terms of what does not belong to that set. To count a set as one is to mention that set. Badiou uses the axioms of Zermelo—Fraenkel set theory to identify the relationship of being to history, Nature, the State, and God. Most significantly this use means that as with set theory there is a strict prohibition on self-belonging; a set cannot contain or belong to itself.
This results from the axiom of foundation — or the axiom of regularity — which enacts such a prohibition cf. This axiom states that every non-empty set A contains an element y that is disjoint from A. Badiou is therefore — against Georg Cantor , from whom he draws heavily — staunchly atheist. However, secondly, this prohibition prompts him to introduce the event. And whilst this is acceptable ontologically, it is unacceptable, Badiou holds, philosophically. And so, Badiou argues, there is therefore only one possibility remaining: that ontology can say nothing about the event.
Mathematician Alan Sokal and physicist Jean Bricmont write that Badiou proposes, with seemingly "utter seriousness," a blending of psychoanalysis, politics and set theory that they contend is preposterous. Nirenberg and Nirenberg write: Rather than being defined in terms of objects previously defined, ex is here defined in terms of itself; you must already have it in order to define it.
Set theorists call this a not-well-founded set. He employs the strategy of the mathematician Paul J. Cohen , using what are called the conditions of sets. These conditions are thought of in terms of domination, a domination being that which defines a set. The condition which has only ones is thus dominated by any condition which has zeros in it [cf. However, he continues, the dominations themselves are, whilst being relative concepts, not necessarily intrinsic to language and constructible thought; rather one can axiomatically define a domination — in the terms of mathematical ontology — as a set of conditions such that any condition outside the domination is dominated by at least one term inside the domination.
It is therefore, he continues, possible to think beyond the strictures of the relativistic constructible universe of language, by a process Cohen calls forcing. And he concludes in following that while ontology can mark out a space for an inhabitant of the constructible situation to decide upon the indiscernible, it falls to the subject — about which the ontological situation cannot comment — to nominate this indiscernible, this generic point; and thus nominate, and give name to, the undecidable event.
Badiou thereby marks out a philosophy by which to refute the apparent relativism or apoliticism in post-structuralist thought. It is to name the indiscernible, the generic set, and thus name the event that re-casts ontology in a new light. He identifies four domains in which a subject who, it is important to note, becomes a subject through this process can potentially witness an event: love, science, politics and art.
Through this maintenance of fidelity, truth has the potentiality to emerge. So too does love have this characteristic of becoming anew. Even in science the guesswork that marks the event is prominent. As he says of Galileo p. While Badiou is keen to reject an equivalence between politics and philosophy, he correlates nonetheless his political activism and skepticism toward the parliamentary-democratic process with his philosophy, based around singular, situated truths, and potential revolutions.
Bosteels Badiou and Politics
Nikojas Badiou spends much of the book dividing Lacan into his materialist and idealist tendencies, much as Althusser had done to Marx. No trivia or quizzes yet. Bostwels empty set is, therefor, both foundational and invisible. One state breaks down, and another eventually comes into being. You must obtain permission directly from the owner of the image. Please direct permission gadiou for these images to permissions dukeupress. Elements of Dialectical Materialism 1 1.
BOSTEELS BADIOU AND POLITICS PDF
Badiou and Politics